Propotional Representation (PR) System and the Future State

The bud of Myanmar Democracy that struggled for long time to grow up and propagate fell or shed together with the coup which acted by the military on 1stFebruary 2021.The reason was found that the military had to perform this coup as there were falseness of votes in the election which was held in November 2020. But, it was more and more striking that the military’s say-so was not a firm reason when the free international institutions which watched the election announced that the falseness of votes had not been found in recent election.

If so, why did the military perform the coup? It is clear that the National League for Democracy Party (NLD) led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi won a landslide victory in each Hluttaw. The army that wanted the position of permanent godfather in Myanmar politics may not seem to accept this situation.

The Military has seen that the 2008 constitution drafted by themselves has strong point for the party that wins in union level according to the experience of former government’s duration.

As the winner party, they can choose the president and establish the government in State and Union level as they wish except for three positions of minister where the military preoverwhelmed.

They can form the Union Election Commission that has to supervise the coming election and constitutional tribunal, which would have to solve disputations on constitutional words, phrases and authority that they are lifeblood of the state.

A part from constitution, they can amend the other laws within Hluttaw as well as obtains the authority to share budget in accordance with their desire.

According to the experience of the duration of government (2015 – 2020), the military did not wish to put these authorities into the hand of the only party. The military attempted coup by the reason of falseness of votes because mainly , they did not want to give the power to NLD which goes different way completely .

It is surer because the Military Council formed the Union Election Commission optionally after their coup; the commission invited the political parties and came across them; and then saying like that what would happen if PR is practiced in coming elections and they ordered to report the papers concerned with the PR.

Next, it is found that, to protect from diminishing their power, the military performed something recklessly such as to abolish NLD party led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi whom they can’t compete in what way. Really, it is not beginning to talk about PR system in the political age of Myanmar democracy’s changing.

It was a kind of election system that could not affirm after debating inside the Hlutaw before the 2015 election.

In the ordinary way, in the system of (FPTP, first past the post) which is practiced now, the giant party will overwhelm in politics and the small parties will disappear finally. It can be seen clearly in the United States of America and in the United Kingdom where this system is practiced .

In the country like Myanmar in which various kinds of ethnic groups live together; no equal quantity in population and only one kind of nationality dominant greatly, for some ethnic groups, minority group, to get the representation in politics the proportional representation system (PR) is very suitable to practice.

The implementation and discussion for practicing the system in what ways to modulate with our country are all inclusive in politics and the excellent circumstance to build up the National State.

But there are many facts to prepare for running the proportional representation system called PR in current Myanmar’s situation.

It is striking that the preparing for the election with PR system after coup is the    performance of military according to the wish to more overwhelm the political power.

Actually, even though the military has this opinion, they cannot act reforming and changing by carrying out the coup over the elected government and current Hluttaw, democratically, have to discuss and perform by coordinating.

It is apparent that the seizure of state power by the army like that is willing to get more control the power than the previous time.

Even if, it became true in election as like the military said, firstly, have to reform the establishment of the Union Election Commission.

After that, it needs to continue to reform the other unequal facts. Just as to get agreement with the political parties for the reforming election system, relevant legislative body needs to reform the constitutional law, laws and regulations practicing now.

For instance , amending the previous descriptions specified the constituencies ; amending the law that has to choose the candidates who gets the maximum perfect votes among the votes of each candidate which is included in electoral law etc.. needs to act mending.

Moreover, it needs to educate and explain about the electoral system that shall be adopted and exercised; the format of voting; systems to choose the candidates to understand the people who are eligible to vote.

Is the PR system changed and practiced in all Hluttaws?

If not, is the Mixed system exercised?

Is the Mixed system exercised in each Hluttaw?

The FPTP is practiced in a Hluttaw and shall the PR system be changed and practiced in other Hluttaw?

 What kind of system is used in which Hluttaw?

As the PR is not the same as FPTP system, how does the Electoral Threshold which the parties have to get the minimum amount of votes percentage define?

Will the candidutes be made open list or close list? etc… such many questions are essential in need to discuss and solve .to discuss and solve these, political parties, scholars and civil societies need to meet and consult for results with the wishes freely. It doesn’t do like this the Election Commission formed by the Military Council which does not represent for any political parties performing this work is not natural processes. Except the parties which followed up the Military Council, the others have assumed like this.

Previously, during discussing this system, although it seemed to be NLD only that did not like PR, when the Military Council is trying to come to life again, it is found that the ethnic parties also dislike it.

Why didn’t they accept it? Isn’t PR good as like FPTP which is used now?

When we look at the nations which use this system in the world, it is found that the small parties can take part in politics.

It also can be seen that the representation of voters is more recognized .However , if this kind of system is exercised in Myanmar, it cannot be found that the nice sign of politics like “all inclusive” which finds in other countries , but it reflects that the military’s permanent domination in futures.

By this election system, it is not like that the only giant party wins the maximum votes in Hluttaw, but if many parties take and share the number of candidates. According to the 2008 constitution , the military has the permission to appoint the 25 percent of  unelected  candidates  and they have to get the main position of the candidates automatically .

From this situation, by controlling main sectors such as the Legislature, Executive, as like the leadership of Myanmar’s politics reach in military’s hand as well as the legislature Hluttaw and government.

By dancing as like the puppets in hand of the Commander – in- Chief of the Defense Services, electing the candidates from the elections, exercising the feint democracy, it will become future state surely as the military dictatorship country which is recorded in the world.

Therefore, this time is the situation that there is no way for all the democratic forces except to beat off the dictatorship, unitedly, in various ways.

Thus, urge urgently to fight against the military junta unitedly, setting aside some disputations for a little while.